Category Archives: STEM

Using Tech to Hook Students: Makey Makey + Scratch = Human Drum Machine

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Using Tech to Hook Students: Makey Makey + Scratch = Human Drum Machine

Want to get kids excited to be in your middle school music class? Then turn them into a human drum machine and beat box!

As you can see, this is great fun for your students – and even teachers!

The human beat box was actually where we ended – we started with a drum machine.

You can see the students have pieces of foil they are tapping on to create a sound. You can use all kinds of things with the Makey Makey to create sound – foil, clay, bananas, and as you already saw, humans!  Since we did this at the beginning of the school year, my students took a piece of foil and turned it into something that represented them.  We had everything from baseballs to ballet slippers to initials.

So how did we do this?  Believe it or not it wasn’t too hard.  All you need is a Makey Makey and a computer to access the website Scratch.

I started out creating a free account on Scratch.  This is a great website that teaches kids (and teachers) to code.  There are countless things you can create – as you’ll see from the examples on the site – but I stuck with the music.  When you first start creating on Scratch there is a helpful tutorial that will show you the basics.

After I got the hang of telling the computer what I wanted it to do, I was able to create a drum machine. I chose the “Sprite” I wanted  – in this case, a percussion instrument.

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Once you choose an instrument you’ll be able to choose from several sounds it can make.

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Then you simply choose the language to tell them computer what you want it to do and when.  In this case I dragged the Event, “When space key pressed” and the Sound “Play sound low tom.”  Each time you add another sound, you assign it to a different key on the keyboard.  To use the Makey Makey at it’s simplest, you’ll want to stick with the space key and left, right, up, down arrow keys.

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I continued adding “Sprites” (instruments), choosing sounds, and the event that would make them happen until I had everything I wanted.

Now to add the Makey Makey…

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This looks complicated at first, but it really isn’t – I promise! The Makey Makey directions and website will walk you through the set up, but here’s the basics – each color cord clips into a hole that corresponds with a key on the keyboard. For instance the orange cord is clipped into the down arrow key hole, so whatever I told the Scratch program to play when I hit the down arrow will happen when I touch the orange clip.

img_0080There is one cord (in this case the white one) that is the grounding cord. Nothing happens
unless the grounding cord is being touched. We made the cord the “Drummer’s Cord” – whoever holds that is the drummer. S/He gets to use the other students as drums by tapping their hand as they hold one of the colored cords.

Obviously, there are many instruments to choose from when creating your Scratch code. There are even pitched instruments like the piano where you can create a separate Sprint for different pitches so you can play a melody.

 

To create the beatbox I used the microphone and created a Sprite for each different sound.

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img_0084As you can see from the videos I started with, everyone loved this!  Even greater is that this can be used with every level of students. Our special needs kids even had a blast trying out all the sounds!

I plan to use this again in my classes and have students create the Scratch codes so they can learn coding basics and test out their creative music making abilities using technology.

Have you used a Makey Makey or Scratch before? Let us know what you’ve tried so we can learn from each other!

 

 

 

Tech Native vs. Tech Literate

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This year I decided to change the purpose of technology in my classroom.  Instead of using IMG_0051it as a glorified notebook/poster or game center (think word processing, slides, and apps), I wanted my students to use technology as a tool for learning new content.  When we talk of 21st century skills, this one stands out to me.  There is no way that teachers can impart every important bit of knowledge to students by the time they graduate from high school. IBM estimates that knowledge doubles every 12 hours.  That’s all the knowledge in humankind. Let that sink in for a minute. Even if 12 hours an exaggeration, we can’t keep up. No one can. We need to teach our students how to gain knowledge on their own.

With this in mind, I wanted to create projects where instead of telling students what I want them to know, they find what they want to know about a particular topic. So I signed out the computer cart, explained the topic to my students (traditional/authentic music from around the world), explained the rubric, and sent them off into the big, wide, internet.


 

Here’s what I expected:

  • Students would do a Google search for something like “traditional music from Japan”
  • They would find a list of titles of traditional music
  • They would find examples of traditional instruments from a country/culture
  • They would then search those titles and find audio examples
  • To go above and beyond they would also find traditional dance and clothing from a particular culture
  • Students may even find modern, westernized music that contains elements of its traditional roots

 

Here’s what happened:

  • Students went to YouTube and typed in “Music from Japan”
  • Students included the first example in their slide show (sometimes without even listening to it). These examples were most often pop tunes and/or compilations of nameless background music – what I like to call cultural elevator music.

So what went wrong?

I assumed that my tech native students were tech literate.

The very students who know the newest apps and every trick on their phone don’t necessarily know their way around the internet.  And why should they?  We’ve implemented hardware and apps into our classrooms to engage our students but have we really shown them how to navigate the world of knowledge available to them?  I see at least one post a day from teachers on social media where they say something like, “I’m getting iPads/Chromebooks/etc. for my classroom. What are your favorite apps?”  Don’t get me wrong – apps are great. But that’s not where our use of technology should end. And coding is great, too – but that’s not where it should end either.  Because if students don’t know how to grow their knowledge, what’s the use of an app?

So how do we help our students become tech literate to independently grow their knowledge?

  1. Teach students how to search
    • If you’re old enough, you remember being taught how to do an internet search in a class or inservice.  This included the proper use of “and” or “or” in our search terms.  Luckily, all that happens automatically these days, but you still have to know how to create a search phrase. Instead of searching for “music from Japan”, search for “traditional music from Japan”.  When a search for “polar bears” doesn’t return what I’m looking for, I need to be able to restate it as “shrinking polar bear habitat”.  In other words, students need to be able to restate, narrow, or even widen their search phrases in order to get the results they are seeking. Which leads us to our next skill ….
  2. Evaluate search results
    • Sometimes we get lucky and the first result gives us exactly what we want. Sometimes not. Actually, if students are asking complex questions, it shouldn’t be the first search result – or even just one. So our students need to learn to scan results to look for hits that might give them what they need. Some will clearly be off track so don’t waste time on them. Some may look promising so click on them to check them out.
  3. Reading a webpage
    • Reading this webpage is easy (I hope).  Some webpages, however, are not.  They can have normal text, bold text, highlighted text, pictures, text boxes, ads, videos … it’s all there. Once students know where their attention needs to go (or how to prioritize their attention), they can fall back on their traditional reading skills to look for pertinent information.

 

IMG_0561These steps are just the beginning of becoming tech literate. Just as knowledge grows exponentially, so do the the skills required to take it all in. Ideally, students would have a tech class where they not only learn to use basic software tools but also the literacy they will need to navigate the oceans of information they will encounter in their lives. These 3 steps, however, are a starting place for any teacher who wants to incorporate tech literacy into a project. None of them are earth shattering, but they serve as a reminder that sometimes students aren’t successful because we’ve assumed too much. We need to take a step back and look at the holes in our students’ skills and knowledge and fill them so they can meet our expectations – and go beyond theirs. 

When this project came around for my second semester class, I added a day at the beginning where I taught them how to search, evaluate their results, and find the specific information they needed. And just as my students became better at searching, I became better at stating my expectations. I gave examples of what traditional is AND isn’t.  I gave examples of what represents a culture’s musical heritage – and what doesn’t.

And guess what …

I didn’t get one example of traditional music from England that included Adele.

 

Build An Instrument: Part 4 – Compose & Perform

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Build An Instrument: Part 4 – Compose & Perform

Whew! Here we are at part 4 of the Build An Instrument unit posts! 20150910_120232-1

Let’s look back at what we’ve done so far …

Part 1 – Introduction

Part 2 – The Science of Sound

Part 3 – Building

and finally Part 4 – Compose and Perform!


Our principal came in when we were in the midst of composing and asked, “How do you teach a kid to compose?”  Luckily, I had an answer, but the truth is I taught many years before I figured out an approach. When I was in my undergrad theory classes and had to compose, the only guidance I remember is knowing some traditional chord progressions – and I wasn’t very successful.  I’ve found the key to teaching students to compose is starting with a very limited structure – the fewer choices the better.

For our middle school students, this meant composing in a modified Rondo form (ABACA) with 8 beats in each phrase.  Every student wrote a solo following this form.  They used traditional or non-traditional notation to indicate rhythm and where each note was to be played on their instrument.  Since we had a wide variety of instruments there were a lot of different sounds.  Another challenge was that most instruments didn’t play consistent pitches – so students notated pitches by labeling strings or making “fret” marks on their instruments and notating them in their music.

Once students wrote their solo, they teamed up in groups of 2, 3, or 4.  The group “sampled” their solos to create a new piece for their group.  This new piece also followed the Rondo form by adding “D” and “E” sections for the groups of 3 and 4.  Everyone agreed on a phrase for the group to play together for each recurring “A” phrase.  Then, each student chose their favorite composed phrase to play as a solo in each alternating section.  In the end, it looked something like this….

A – group

B – student 1 solo

A – group

C – student 2 solo

A – group

After a day of practicing with their group to perfect their piece, we celebrated with a day of performances!  Here’s an example …

Overall, the results of this unit were outstanding.  Students applied the science of sound to the instruments they built and more importantly, learned from trial and error.  Most students did not end up with the exact instrument they first conceived – but many of the results were even better.  Composing and performing was new for most kids, but many had very successful first attempts!  We’re looking forward to see what else they can accomplish throughout the semester!